The early studies of good language learner indicated that students’ active involvement in the learning process through the application of learning strategies is an effective factor which leads to their success.
Language learning strategies have been defined by different scholars. According to Rubin “strategies are techniques or devices which a learner may use to acquire knowledge”. From O’Malley and Chamot’s point of view, they are “complex procedures that individuals apply to tasks, consequently they may be presented as procedural knowledge which may be acquired through cognitive, associative, and autonomous stages of learning”.
Oxford(1990, p.8) expands O’Malley and Chamot’s definition and says “language learning strategies are specific actions taken by the learners to make learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, more self-directed, more effective, and more transferable to new situations”.
As can be seen, various terms have been associated with learning strategies: techniques, devices, procedures, and actions. There is no strong consensus in the literature on what exactly strategies are. As Cohen (2005) reports, in 2004 a group of recognized researchers in the field of language learning strategies came together and answered a questionnaire developed by Cohen which could reflect their view of learning strategies. Although they agreed on some aspects such as the role of learning strategies in enhancing performance in language learning and use as well as their potential for making learning easier, faster, and more enjoyable, one specific definition for learning strategies couldn’t be developed. Cohen (2005) believes what explains experts’ differences in approaches and perspectives is their accessing the professional literature from different fields.